EFFORTI Comparative Background Report on contextual enviroments for gender equality in RTDI
The following report compares the results of the country reports and tries to identify similarities but also differences within the contextual environments for gender equality in RTDI. As the national reports were following the same structure and used the same data to describe the contextual EFFORTI Comparative Background Report 8 environment in each country, they provided a solid basis for an international comparison. In cases where data or information was not available in some country notes, the authors of these reports were asked to provide thisinformation for the comparative report. If additionalsources were used that were not mentioned in the country reports, these sources were referenced in the footnotes. To enhance the readability of the comparative report, we have not referenced all sources of information which were used in the different country reports. Therefore, the country notes should be consulted to identify sources of information and data. The comparative reportstarts with a comparison of the different innovation systems asthese form the background of all measures to promote gender equality in RTDI. The chapter describes the key structural features, inputs and outputs of the innovation systems in the EFFORTI countries in respect of their potential linkages to and effects on gender equality in RTDI. In the following chapter, the second general context for gender equality in RTDI is discussed: the equal opportunity and anti‐ discrimination legislation but also taxation policies and parental leave regulations are compared. Furthermore, the different gender and welfare regimes prevalent in the EFFORTI countries are assessed based on selected data on the participation of women in the labour market, the usage of parental leave and the gendered division of paid and unpaid work. The third chapter of this report focuses on the core topic of the EFFORTI project: gender equality in RTDI. The first part of this chapter discusses the gender equality policies and strategies in RTDI whereas the second part assesses the status quo of gender equality in RTDI and compares this to data for the whole labour market. The evaluation culture is considered in the fourth chapter which provides an overview of the recent developments and the status quo of policies and practices of evaluation in the EFFORTI countries. The concluding chapter discusses differences and similarities between gender equality in the whole labour market and in the RDTI sector, how the structure of the innovation system affects gender equality in RTDI and what can be learned from the comparison of policies and practices of evaluation in RTDI. Through this exercise, a deeper understanding of the contextual environments and their interrelations and interdependency with gender equality in RTDI should be developed. This will be used to identify those contextual factors which should be considered for developing an evaluation framework for gender equality measures in RTDI within the EFFORTI project.